their tireless propaganda efforts, Armenian activists resort
to proven forgeries and distortions so that they can show
the world, they were the innocent victims of a so-called
genocide. The quotations below, all by non-Turkish authors,
historians and politicians demonstrate clearly that, far
from being innocent victims, Armenians actively participated
in the First World War on the side of the Ottoman Empire's
enemies and caused unspeakable atrocities against the Turkish
Truth never seems to be a hindrance for Armenian activists
in pursuit of their political goals. When they needed the
help of the western world, they claimed more Armenians were
killed than their entire population. However, they brought
all the claimed dead back to life in order to show how populous
Armenians were in eastern Anatolia, to the victors of the
First World War, during the negotiations at the Paris Peace
Conference and the Treaty of Sevrés, so that they could
substantiate their demand that an independent Armenian State
must be established!
The following quotations from non-Turkish sources are categorized
under three headings:
1. Armenian Revolutionary Bands and Atrocities
2. Armenian Propaganda
3. Armenian Cooperation with Russia and the Allies, against
the Ottoman Empire.
1. ARMENIAN REVOLUTIONARY BANDS AND ATROCITIES:
1.1 Louise Nalbandian, The Armenian Revolutionary Movement,
The programme of the Dashnaksutiun Party (Armenian Revolutionary
Federation) was drafted during the General Congress in 1892.
The methods to be used by the revolutionary bands organized
by the Party were as follows:
a. To propagandize for the principles of the Dashnaksutiun
and its objectives based on an understanding of, and in
sympathy with, the revolutionary work.
b. To organize fighting bands, to work with them with regard
to the above-mentioned issues and to prepare them for activity.
c. To use every means, by word and deed, to arouse the revolutionary
activity and spirit of the people.
d. To use every means to arm the people.
e. To organize revolutionary committees and establish strong
links between them.
f. To stimulate fighting and to terrorize government officials,
informers, traitors, usurers and every kind of exploiter.
g. To organize financial districts.
h. To protect the peaceful people and the inhabitants against
attacks by brigands.
i. To establish communications for the transportation of
men and arms.
j. To expose government establishments to looting and destruction
1.2 Sir Mark Sykes, The Caliph's Last Heritage, London
As for the tactics of the revolutionaries, anything more
fiendish one could not imagine - The assassination of Moslems
in order to bring about the punishment of innocent men,
the midnight extortion of money from villages which have
just paid their taxes by day, the murder of persons who
refuse to contribute to their collection boxes, are only
some of the crimes of which Moslems, Catholics and Gregorians
accuse them with no uncertain voice. The Armenian revolutionaries
prefer to plunder their co-religionists to giving battle
to their enemies; the anarchists of Constantinople throw
bombs with the intention of provoking a massacre of their
If the object of English philanthropists and the roving
brigands (who are the active agents of revolution) is to
subject the bulk of eastern provinces to the tender mercies
of an Armenian oligarchy, then I cannot entirely condemn
the fanatic outbreaks of the Moslems or the repressive measures
of the Turkish Government. On the other hand, if the object
of the Armenians is to secure equality before law and the
maintenance of security and peace in the countries partly
inhabited by Armenians, then I can only say that their methods
are not those calculated to achieve success (p. 409).
1.3 William A. Langer, The Diplomacy of Imperialism,
New York, 1960:
Revolutionary placards were being posted in the cities and
there were not a few cases of the blackmailing of wealthy
Armenians, who were forced to contribute to the cause. Europeans
in Turkey were agreed that the immediate aim of the agitators
was to incite disorder, bring about inhuman reprisals and
so provoke the intervention of the powers. For that reason,
it was said, they operated by preference in areas where
the Armenians were in a hopeless minority, so that reprisals
would be certain. One of the revolutionaries told Dr. Hamlin,
the founder of Robert College, that the Hunchak bands would
"watch their opportunity to kill Turks and Kurds, set
fire to their villages, and then make their escape into
the mountains. The enraged Moslems will then rise, and fall
upon the defenseless Armenians and slaughter them with such
barbarity that Russia will enter in the name of humanity
and Christian civilization and take possession". When
the horrified missionary denounced the scheme as atrocious
and infernal beyond anything ever known, he received this
reply: "It appears so to you, no doubt; but we Armenians
have determined to be free. Europe listened to the Bulgarian
horrors and made Bulgaria free. She will listen to our cry
when it goes up in the shrieks and blood of millions of
women and children. We shall do it" (p. 157).
1.4 Sydney Whitman, Turkish Memories, London 1914:
Shortly after the news had spread to Europe of the attack
on the Ottoman Bank and the subsequent massacre of Armenians,
a number of artists of illustrated newspapers arrived in
Constantinople, commissioned to supply the demand for atrocities
of the Million-headed-Tyrant. Among these was the late Mr.
Melton Prior, the renowned war correspondent. He was a man
of strenuous and determined temperament, one not accustomed
to be the sport of circumstances but to rise superior to
them. Whether he was called upon to take part in a forced
march or to face a mad Mullah, he invariable held his own
and came off victorious. But in this particular case, as
he confided to me, he was in an awkward predicament. The
public at home had heard of nameless atrocities and was
anxious to receive pictorial representations of these. The
difficulty was how to supply them with what they wanted,
as the dead Armenians had been buried and no women or children
had suffered hurt and no Armenian church had be!
en desecrated. As an old admirer of the Turks and as an
honest man, he declined to invent what he had not witnessed.
But others were not equally scrupulous. I subsequently saw
an Italian illustrated newspaper containing harrowing pictures
of women and children being massacred in a church. (p. 29)
"Do you believe that any massacres would have taken
place if no Armenian revolutionaries had come into the country
and incited the Armenian population to rebellion?"
I asked Mr. Graves (The British Consul).
"Certainly not" he replied. "I do not believe
that a single Armenian would have been killed". (p.
1.5 Sir Edwin Pears, Forty Years in Constantinople, London
Under such circumstances the revolt of a handful of Armenians
had not a chance of success and was therefore unjustifiable.
As a friend to the Armenians, revolt seemed to me purely
mischievous. Some of the extremists declared that while
they recognized that hundreds of innocent persons suffered
from each of these attempts, they could provoke a big massacre
which would bring in foreign intervention. Such intervention
was useless so long as Russia was hostile. Lord Salisbury
had publicly declared that as he could not get a fleet over
the Taurus mountains he did not see how England could help
the Armenians, much as he sympathized with them (p. 155).
1.6 C.F. Dixon-Johnson, The Armenians, Blackburn 1916:
The advent of these revolutionary agents into Kurdistan
had the inevitable result of embittering the former good
relations of the Turkish Government and the resident Moslem
population with the Christians and especially the Orthodox
Armenian section of the inhabitants. This was natural for
the reason that in Turkey the people have a horror of secret
societies and plots, founded on the experience of their
own suffering at the hands of the Greek Hetairia and the
Bulgarian Komitadjis. The fears of the Turks and the Kurds
were genuine. They believed that the members of the once
loyal 'millet-i sadika' (the loyal nation) no longer merited
the title and that they were arming and preparing to massacre
the Moslems. The whole country became like a powder magazine
1.7 Clair Price, The Rebirth of Turkey, New York 1923:
Under the 1908 Constitution, the Enver Government had a
right to mobilize Armenians of military age as well as Turks,
but armed opposition broke out at once, notably at Zeitun..Along
the eastern frontier, Armenians began deserting to the Russian
Armies and the Enver Government, distrusting the loyalties
of those who remained, removed them from the combatant force
and formed them into labour gangs.
In April, Lord Bryce and the "Friends of Armenia"
in London appealed for funds to equip these volunteers and
Russia also was presumable not uninterested in them.These
volunteer bands finally captured Van, one of the eastern
provincial capitals late in April and having massacred the
Turkish population, they surrendered what remained of the
city to the Russian Armies in June. The news from Van affected
the Turks precisely as the news from Smyrna affected them
when the Greeks landed there in May 1919. The rumour immediately
ran through Asia Minor that the Armenians had risen.
By this time, the military situation had turned sharply
against the Enver Government. The Russian victory at Sarikamis
was developing and streams of Turkish refugees were pouring
westward into central Asia minor. The British had launched
their Dardanelles campaign at the very gates of Constantinople
and Bulgaria had not yet come in. It does not seem reasonable
to assume that this moment, of all moments, would have been
chosen by the Enver Government to take widespread measures
against its Armenians unless it was believed that such measures
were immediately necessary. Measures were taken (pages 86-87).
1.8 Felix Valyi, Revolutions in Islam, London 1925:
In April the Armenian revolutionaries seized the town of
Van, established an Armenian "General Staff" there
under the command of Aram and Vardan, which delivered up
the town to the Russian troops on the 6th of May, after
having freed the district of Van from Mohammedans.
Amongst the most notorious of the Armenian chiefs was Karekin
Pastermadjian, a former member of the Turkish Parliament
, known by the name of 'Garo' who put himself at the head
of the Armenian volunteers at the time of the opening of
hostilities between Turkey and Russia and the Turks accuse
him of having set fire to all the Mussulman villages he
found on his way and of massacring their inhabitants. It
is known that the attempts made by Turkey to win the support
of the "Dashnakzoutioun" party against Russia
at the beginning of the war were repulsed in the month of
September 1914, by the Armenian Congress at Erzurum, which
declared itself 'neutral'. Nevertheless, the thousands of
Russian bombs and muskets which were found in the hands
of its members prove what this neutrality meant. And indeed
the Turks attribute the Russian invasion of the north of
Asia Minor to the behaviour of the Armenian bands whose
attitude made the defence of the country exceedingly difficult
1.9 Niles, Emory and Sutherland, Arthur, U.S. 867.00/1005,
Princeton, 11 October 1919:
(Captain Emory Niles and Mr. Arthur Sutherland were Americans
ordered by the United States Government in 1919 to investigate
the situation in eastern Anatolia.)
In the entire region from Bitlis through Van to Bayezit
we were informed that the damage and destruction had been
done by the Armenians, who, after the Russians retired,
remained in occupation of the country and who, when the
Turkish army advanced, destroyed everything belonging to
the Musulmans. Moreover, the Armenians are accused of having
committed murder, rape arson and horrible atrocities of
every description upon the Musulman population. At first
we were most incredulous of these stories, but we finally
came to believe them, since the testimony was absolutely
unanimous and was corroborated by material evidence. For
instance, the only quarters left at all intact in the cities
of Bitlis and Van are the Armenian quarters, as was evidenced
by churches and inscriptions on the houses, while the Musulman
quarters were completely destroyed. Villages said to have
been Armenian were still standing whereas Musulman villages
were completely destroyed.
McCarthy, Justin, Death and Exile, The Ethnic Cleansing
of Ottoman Muslims 1821-1922, The Darwin Press Inc., 1995:
In the provinces in which the war was primarily fought-Van,
Bitlis and Erzurum-at least 40 percent of the Muslims were
dead at war's end. Of course Muslims were not the only ones
to die. The Armenian death rate was at least as great and
Armenian losses cannot be ignored. But the world has long
known of the suffering of Armenians. It is time for the
world to also consider the suffering of the Muslims of the
east and the horror that it was. Like the Armenians, Muslims
were massacred or died from starvation and disease in stupefying
numbers. Like the Armenians their deaths deserve remembrance.
1.11 General Bronsart, Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 24
As demonstrated by the innumerable declarations, provocative
pamphlets, weapons, ammunition, explosives etc., found in
areas inhabited by Armenians, the rebellion was prepared
for a long time, organized, strengthened and financed by
Russia. Information was received on time in Istanbul about
an Armenian assassination attempt directed at high ranking
state officials and officers.
Since all Muslims capable of bearing arms were in the Turkish
army, it was easy to organize a terrible massacre by the
Armenians against defenceless people, because the Armenians
were not only attacking the sides and rear of the Eastern
Army paralyzed at the front by the Russians, but were attacking
the Muslim folk in the region as well. The Armenian atrocities
which I have witnessed were far worse than the so-called
2.1 C.F. Dixon-Johnson, The Armenians, Blackburn 1916:
We have no hesitation in repeating that these stories of
wholesale massacre have been circulated with the distinct
objective of influencing, detrimentally to Turkey, the future
policy of the British Government when the time of settlement
shall arrive. No apology, therefore, is needed for honestly
endeavouring to show how a nation with whom we were closely
allied for many years and which possesses the same faith
as millions of our fellow-subjects, has been condemned for
perpetrating horrible excesses against humanity on 'evidence'
which, when absolutely false, is grossly and shamefully
exaggerated (p. 61).
2.2 David G. Hogarth, A Wandering Scholar in the Levant,
New York, 1896:
The Armenian, for all his ineffaceable nationalism, his
passion for plotting and his fanatical intolerance, would
be a negligible thorn in the Ottoman side did he stand alone.
The Porte knows very well that while Armenian Christians
are Gregorian, Catholic and Protestant, each sect bitterly
intolerant of the others and moreover while commerce and
usury are all in Armenian hands, it can divide and rule
secure; but behind the Armenian secret societies (and there
are few Armenians who have not committed technical treason
by becoming members of such societies at some point of their
lives) it sees the Kurd, and behind the Kurd the Russian;
or looking west, it espies through the ceaseless sporadic
propaganda of the agitators Exeter Hall and Armenian Committees.
The Turk begins to repress because we sympathize and we
sympathize because he represses and so the vicious circle
revolves. Does he habitually, however, do more than repress?
Does he, as administrator oppress? So far we have heard
one version only, one part to this suit, with its stories
of outrage and echoing through them a long cry for national
independence. The mouth of the accused has been shut hitherto
by fatalism, by custom, by the gulf of misunderstanding
which is fixed between the Christian and the Moslem.
In my own experience of western Armenia, extending more
or less over four years up to 1894, I have seen no signs
of a Reign of Terror. Life in Christian villages has not
shown itself outwardly to me as being very different from
life in the villages of Islam, nor the trade and property
of Armenians in towns to be less secure than those of Moslems.
There was tension, there was friction, there was a condition
of mutual suspicion as to which Armenians have said to me
again and again "If only the patriots would leave us
to trade and to till!". The Turk rules by right of
five hundred years' possession, and before his day the Byzantine,
the Persian, the Parthian, the Roman preceded each other
as over-lords of Greater Armenia back to the misty days
of the first Tigranes. The Turk claims certain rights in
this matter - the right to safeguard his own existence,
the right to smoke out such hornets' nests as Zeitun, which
has annihilated for centuries past the trade of Eastern
Taurus, t!he right to remain dominant by all means not outrageous
2.3 E. Alexander Powell, The Struggle for Power in Moslem
Asia, New York, 1925:
Atrocity stories have been vastly overdone; some of the
more recent massacres have been wholly nonexistent. One
of the local (Constantinople) members of the press and of
a relief organization told some friends openly that he could
only send anti-Turkish dispatches to America because that
is what gets the money.
Arthur Ponsonby, Falsehood in War-Time, New York 1928
A circular was issued by the War Office inviting reports
on war incidents from officers with regard to the enemy
and stating that strict accuracy was not essential so long
as there was inherent probability (p 20).
Atrocity lies were the most popular of all, especially in
this country and America; no war can be without them. Slander
of the enemy is esteemed a patriotic duty (p 22).
It is impossible to describe all the types of atrocity stories.
They were repeated for days in brochures, posters, letters
and speeches. Renowned persons, who otherwise would be hesitant
to condemn even their mortal enemies for lack of evidence,
did not hesitate to accuse an entire nation of having committed
every imaginable savagery and inhuman action (p. 129).
2.5 Lamsa, George M., The Secret of the Near East, Philadelphia,
In some towns containing ten Armenian houses and thirty
Turkish houses, it was reported that 40,000 people were
killed, about 10,000 women were taken to the harem, and
thousands of children left destitute; and the city university
destroyed, and the bishop killed. It is a well-known fact
that even in the last war the native Christians, despite
the Turkish cautions, armed themselves and fought on the
side of the Allies. In these conflicts, they were not idle,
but they were well supplied with artillery, machine guns
and inflicted heavy losses on their enemies (page 133).
2.6 Prime Minister Millerand, Archives des Affaires Etrangeres
de France, Vol 9, Folio 3:
I am surprised that London should possess information which
no one here is aware of and is unable to document. As a
result, it has been impossible until now to determine exactly
that Armenians have been massacred in any area. There is
much talk about it but no one was able to give me certain
and exact information. In particular the Armenian losses
in Marash appear to be absolutely false. Apparently, the
Armenians took part in the struggle of our troops in this
city and had casualties like all the fighters. A serious
study of the figures shows that these Armenian casualties
do not exceed 1000.
2.7 Clair Price, The Rebirth of Turkey, New York 1923:
By the end of October, the late Miss Annie T. Allen and
Miss Florence Billings, the Near East Relief's representatives
in Ankara (Angora), compiled a report on the state of the
Turkish villages which the Greeks had burned during their
retreat and forwarded it to the Near East Relief's headquarters
in Constantinople. But the Near East Relief has never published
that report, just as Mr. Lloyd George never published the
Bristol report on Greek misdeeds at Izmir (Smyrna) (p. 189).
2.8 L. Evans, United States Policy and the Partition
of Turkey, 1914-1924, Baltimore 1965:
Quoting from the American High Commissioner Admiral Bristol's
report: "The United States should raise its voice against
the plans of the Allies and the American people should be
told the facts. They (the Turks) were still human and still
had rights and the other side of the coin was obscured by
the flood of Greek and Armenian propaganda painting the
Turks as completely inhuman and undeserving of any consideration,
while suppressing all the facts in favor of the Turks."
2.9 Migirdic Agop, The Turkish Armenians, Istanbul 1922:
The Turkish Armenian does not know what a revolution is.
He fears a revolution like death. But if there is something
he is more afraid of, it is the revolutionary Armenian,
the unreasoning revolutionary Armenians without a conscience
who dragged him from misery to misery for several years
with the thought of doing a good deed for him.
The Turkish Armenian have to confess that this enemy of
their own kind has been everywhere and has done its work
everywhere. It also had many followers in Russia, England
and Turkey. Because it is known as a social truth that divisive
movements and propaganda among groups in a society influence
the masses very deeply. When these witless wretches came
up with the idea of establishing a large state with the
Armenians in Caucasia and Turkey, the God-fearing Armenians
with good conscience who were aware of where the best interests
of the nation lay, were overcome with sadness: 'An independent
state, which will also include within its borders some of
the Turkish provinces, is that it? This would be the destruction
of Armenians' they said.
This was the truth.! It was impossible for any Armenian
with a little bit of discernment not to see it. Because
these people were thinking that they could change the bed
of a large river with eight or ten pieces of stone.
This large river had opened its real bed by flowing for
centuries on a strong surface. To change this direction
was to tear Armenian interests from the tranquil flow of
the river, to push them to draught-ridden lands and to strangle
them there for ever. Those feeble minded persons failed
to see that the foreigners who supported their revolution
and evil deeds and championed their causes in their newspapers
did not undertake such action for the love of Armenians.
The aim, and the sole aim of these so-called protective
powers was to cause the shedding of blood in regions which
they earmarked for their hegemony and to take over these
regions with the pretext of cleaning the blood.
History is still recording what imperialism is capable of
doing in places it sets its eyes on. But it was impossible
to make the public-spirited revolutionaries comprehend this.
The anarchists and propagandists among them who could be
useful neither to themselves nor to their communities in
any other way were receiving salaries. They were also receiving
what they conceived to be pledges. Overwhelmed under these
condition, they believed there was Turkish oppression, and
they also made their compatriots believe in their lies.
The last quarter of a century of Turkey's history is filled
with some Armenian events. Although these events were supposedly
aimed at some goals harmful to Turkey, in fact they were
only the oppression of Armenians by Armenians. If the causes
and reasons for each event are analyzed one by one and if
the events are analyzed meticulously, the only conclusion
that will be arrived at is the one we have stated in the
previous sentence; the oppression of Armenians by Armenians.
K.S. Papazian, Patriotism Perverted, Boston 1934:
When the world war broke out in Europe, the Turks began
feverish preparations for joining hands with the Germans.
In August 1914 the young Turks asked the Dashnag Convention,
then in session in Erzurum, to carry out their old agreement
of 1907 and start an uprising among the Armenians of the
Caucasus against the Russian government. The Dashnagtzoutune
refused to do this and gave assurance that in the event
of war between Russia and Turkey, they would support Turkey
as loyal citizens. On the other hand, they could not be
held responsible for the Russian Armenians..The fact remains,
however, that the leaders of the Turkish-Armenian section
of the Dashnagtzoutune did not carry out their promise of
loyalty to the Turkish cause when the Turks entered the
war. The Dashnagtzoutune in the Caucasus had the upper hand.
They were swayed in their actions by the interests of the
Russian government and disregarded entirely, the political
dangers that the war had created for the Armenian!s in Turkey.
Prudence was thrown to the winds; even the decision of their
own convention of Erzurum was forgotten and a call was sent
for Armenian volunteers to fight the Turks on the Caucasus
front (p. 37).
Rafael de Nogales, Four Years Beneath the Crescent, New
York 1926, (English translation by Muna Lee):
After hostilities had actually commenced, the Deputy to
the Assembly for Erzurum, Garo Pasdermichian passed over
with almost all the Armenian troops and officers of the
Third Army to the Russians; to return with them soon after
burning hamlets and mercilessly putting to the knife all
of the peaceful Mussulman villagers that fell into their
hands. These bloody excesses had as their necessary corollary
the immediate disarmament by the Ottoman authorities of
the gendarmes and other Armenian soldiers who still remained
in the army (probably because they had been unable to escape)
and the utilization of their labour in the construction
of highways and in carrying provisions back and forth across
the mountains. The altogether unjustifiable desertion of
the Armenian troops, united to the outrages they committed
afterwards, on their return, in the sectors of Bashkaleh,
Serail and Bayacet, did not fail to alarm the Turks and
rouse their fear lest the rest of the Armenian population
in the frontier provinces of Van and Erzurum revolt likewise
and attack them with the sword. This indeed is precisely
what happened a few weeks after my coming, when the Armenians
of the vilayet of Van rose en masse against our expeditionary
army in Persia; thus giving rise to bloody and terrible
occurrences which, under the circumstances, might have been
foreseen (p. 45).
3.3 Hovhannes Katchaznouni, The Armenian Revolutionary
Federation (Dashnagtzoutiun) Has Nothing to Do Anymore,
Bucharest 1923, (translated from the original by Matthew
(Mr. Katchaznouni was the first prime minister of the Independent
In the beginning of fall 1914, when Turkey had not yet entered
the war but was preparing to, Armenian volunteer groups
began to be organized with great zeal and pomp in Trans-Caucasia.
In spite of the decision taken a few weeks before at the
General Committee in Erzurum, the Dashnagtzoutune actively
helped the organization of the aforementioned groups and
especially arming them against Turkey..There is no point
in asking today whether our volunteers should have been
in the foreground. Historical events have a logic of their
own. In the fall of 1914 Armenian volunteer groups were
formed and fought against the Turks. The opposite could
not have happened, because for approximately twenty years
the Armenian community was fed a certain and inevitable
psychology. This state of mind had to manifest itself and
3.4 Philippe de Zara, Mustapha Kemal, Dictateur, Paris
After having accomplished the minimum of their duty as Ottoman
citizens, the Armenians began to encourage the activities
of the enemy. Their ambiguous attitude had certainly little
to do with loyalty. But which Westerner would have the right
to accuse them when traditions taught by Europe made the
insubordination of the Sultan's Christian subjects the most
sacred of obligations. An insubordination which was often
sanctioned by giving autonomy, if not sovereignty. Nevertheless,
how can anybody deny that in the opinion of the Turks, according
to the law of all the states, the conduct of the Armenians
facilitating during the war the task of the adversary, van
be recognized as anything but a crime of high treason?..The
Armenian committees, divided among themselves for internal
issues, were often in agreement to facilitate the advance
of the Russian armies; they were attempting to obstruct
the retreat of Turkish troops, to stop the convoys of provisions,
to form bands of francs!-tireurs. Mass desertions took place
in the Eastern provinces; Armenians thus formed many troops
officered by Russian officers. Here and there local revolts
occurred. The leaders were setting the examples; two Armenian
deputies fled to Russia. A literature of hatred was recalled.
"Let the Turkish mothers cry..Lets make the Turk taste
a little grief". The culpability of Armenians leaves
no doubt (page 159).
3.5 Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and
Modern Turkey,Cambridge University Press, 1977, Volume II:
Armenians again flooded the czarist armies, and the czar
returned to St. Petersburg confident that the day finally
had come for him to reach Istanbul. Hostilities were opened
by Russians, who pushed across the border on November 1,
1914, though the Ottomans stopped them and pushed them back
a few days later. A subsequent Russian counter offensive
in January caused the Ottoman army to scatter and the way
was prepared for a new Russian push into eastern Anatolia,
to be accompanied by an open Armenian revolt against the
sultan. Armenian leaders in Russia now declared their open
support of the enemy and there seemed no other alternative.
It would be impossible to determine which of the Armenians
would remain loyal and which would follow the appeals of
their leaders. As soon as the spring came, then, in mid-May
1915 orders were issued to evacuate the entire Armenian
population from the provinces of Van, Bitlis, and Erzurum,
to get them away from all areas where they might under!mine
the Ottoman campaigns against Russia or against the British
in Egypt, with arrangements made to settle them in towns
and camps in the Mosul area of Northern Iraq. In addition,
Armenians residing in the countryside (but not in the cities)
of the Cilician districts as well as those of north Syria
were to be sent to central Syria for the same reason. Specific
instructions were issued for the army to protect the Armenians
against nomadic attacks and to provide them with sufficient
food and other supplies to meet their needs during the march
and after they were settled. Warnings were sent to the Ottoman
military commanders to make certain that neither the Kurds
nor any other Muslims used the situation to gain vengeance
for the long years of Armenian terrorism. The Armenians
were to be protected and cared for until they returned to
their homes after the war (page 315).
Boghos Nubar, Letter to Times of London, dated January 30,
(Mr. Nubar was the head of the Armenian National Delegation
to the Paris Peace Conference held by the victors of the
The Armenians have been, since the beginning of the war,
de facto belligerents - since they fought alongside the
Allies on all fronts - in Palestine and Syria, where the
Armenian volunteers, recruited by the Armenian National
Delegation at the request of the French government, made
up more than half of the French contingent. In the Caucasus,
where, without mentioning the 150,000 Armenians in the Imperial
Russian Army, more than 40,000 of their volunteers offered
resistance to the Turkish Armies.
3.7 Lieutenant Colonel T. Williams (Labour Party M.P.),
Parliamentary Debates (Commons), London 25.ii.1924, vol.
The Armenians were very well treated for hundreds of years
by the Turks, until Russia, in the first place, started
using them as pawns for purely political purposes; they
exploited them as Christians, solely as pawns.
3.8 A. H Arslanian, British Wartime Pledges, 1917-1918:
The Armenian Case, Journal of Contemporary History, Vol.
British promises to Armenians were exactly like their promises
to Arabs in Syria, Palestine and Mesopotamia; they were
made with the purpose of encouraging the war efforts of
the Armenians, to influence neutral states in favor of England
and to excite the separatist tendencies in ethnic minorities
under the rule of these neutral states so as to make their
enemy, the Ottoman Empire, collapse from the inside (page
3.9 Lord Curzon, PRO, FO. 800/151, 6.xii.1921:
I think Armenians know that among the Great Powers, Her
Majesty's Government have always been their best friend
and most loyal supporters..But you cannot expect this country
- or any other one - to choose any area in Turkey, to chase
away from there all other races, to increase the Armenian
population there under the shadow of British bayonets, and
to thus organize a national Armenian existence there with
exorbitant taxes to be extracted from the British people.
Even the thought of it cannot go beyond being a raw fancy.