ON RELOCATION AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION
Government, in order to deal with the Armenian riots and massacres,
primarily applied regional measures and preferred to maintain
a position of defence to settle the events locally. Despite
the great roles the religious leaders played in riots and
the desertion of Armenians with their arms, the Government
agreed to define these riots as individual attempts. At the
same time, the Armenian Patriarch and Armenian parliamentarians,
committees and leaders of the Armenian community were told
that more severe measures would have to be taken in order
to ensure the defence of the country in case of newly arising
of the Ottoman Government have been proven with documents.
However, the Armenians that were well prepared for any riots
before the occurrence of the war, didn’t revolt in masses
as soon as the war broke out. While the Ottoman army was actively
fighting on the fronts, the Armenian activities continued
according plans prepared with “the aim to serve the alliance
ideal for the Armenian independence”. Nonetheless, the fact
that the activities carried out by the Armenian gangs were
considered as a betrayal regarding the international laws
riots spread from Eastern Anatolia other towns. As the Russian
occupation spread in and around Erzurum, Armenians considered
that they could claim right on the blood of the dwellers and,
as a German general cited, began to eradicate the Muslim population
in this region.
actions and brutalities of the Armenian gangs continued, numerous
kinds of arms and guns were caught in the searches performed
by security forces in regions where Armenians resided. This
severe condition that endangered the existence of the state
indicated that more problematic arouse as result of more tolerance
compensation would be impossible.
After the Ottoman
State entered the war and especially after the defeat on the
Caucasus front, occurrences such as Armenian oppression against
the Muslim population, their desertion the military units,
their attacks on the soldiers and security forces, their being
capture with arms, the capturing of French, Russian and Armenian
coding groups were the most significant proofs showing that
they were about to start revolts within the country.
necessary security precautions against riots and massacres,
the Ottoman Government, before the “Law on Replacement and
Settlement” was passed, had also settled the Armenians in
some other regions when these precautions were not sufficient
enough. However, the incident that strengthened the idea of
the generalization of this practice that was the riots of
the Armenians of Van.
prove that the Armenians were gathering in Van and, took up
armes, waiting for the Russians to get closer, when the Ottoman
State entered the war. The riots that Armenians caused, excluding
the massacres and destruction, resulted in the occupation
of Russians of Van, Malazgirt and Bitlis within a month. The
example of Van showed clearly that the Turkish army would
always be betrayed. Under these circumstances, the government
had to decide upon the relocation of Armenians residing in
various regions of the country.
of replacement became a necessity because Armenian dreaming
over the foundation of an independent Armenia and thinking
that they would be given the regions they occupied in the
First World War. The practice of relocation of the Armenians
living in the regions which formed a security line through
the Caucasus, Iran and Sina, was not performed with the aim
of eradicating the Armenians, but with the aim of ensuring
security in the state and to protecting them. The replacement
was the most successful one that ever been done in the history
implementation of relocation is not considered from this point
of view. Armenia and the Armenian Diaspora have been exercising
propaganda full of lies and calumnies against the Ottoman
State. Nonetheless, the historical fact is this: by the decision
of relocation, Ottoman State saved the Armenians from becoming
extinct and also protected them in a way never seen before.
If there exists an Armenian nation and is vast in population,
it stems from the good intentions and the success of the Ottomans.
Armenia and the Armenians, instead of accusing them, have
to be thankful to the Ottoman State for providing them with
an independent church and protecting them, and they have to
consider the faithful and sensible approaches Turkish Armenians,
as a good example.
As the riots
and massacres made by the Armenians who joined in the activities
of The Allied States and Russia reached to a point that would
change the result of the war, the commander in chief Enver
Pasha, sending a written notification to Talat Pasha, the
Minister of Domestic Affairs, on 2nd May 1915, stated that
it was necessary to disperse the Armenians that were ready
and gathered to maintain their riots in the Van region so
that they could not riot.
action, Talat Pasha, through sending a coded message to the
4th Army Command on 23th May 1915, ordered that the Armenians
who were moved from Erzurum, Van and Bitlis be replaced and
settled in Urfa district, excluding the southern part of Musul
province, Zor district, and the central district; the Armenians
who were moved from Adana, Halep, Maras settled in the eastern
part of Syria province and to the eastern and southeastern
part of Halep province. The Civil Services Inspector Ali Seydi
Bey was assigned to the post of inspecting the settlement
and relocation procedures in Adana region, Hamid Bey in Aleppo
and Maras region.
government had founded the basis of the practice of relocation
within the framework of a law already valid in those times.
It was not an arbitrary practice. The law containing four
articles comprises the measures to be taken by military units
against the rebels that refused the authority of the state
taking action in war.
It is stated
in the Article 1 of the Law on Relocation and Settlement that
if there is opposition against the governmental powers and
the established order, attacks and resistance, severe defence
and elimination should be exercised, and in Article 2, it
is stated that towns and villages that are proven to be betraying
and engaging in espionage towards the armed forces be displaced
to other regions, in Article 3 the validity of the law and
in Article 4 the liability of the implementation of the law
As seen from
the law, it is exactly an authoritative law against violence,
and ensuring the protection of the state and public order.
The most significant feature of the law is that no specific
ethnic group and community are implied or indicated. The Ottoman
citizens of Muslim, Greek and Armenian origin covered by this
law were subject to relocation. Thus regarding the Law on
Relocation and Settlement also known as the “Law on Migration”
to be aiming at a specific nation either results from lack
of information or is a deliberate attempt of propaganda.
While the Ministry
of Domestic Affairs were taking measures to arrest the Armenian
rebels, Russian, French and English governments, who issued
a joint statement on 24th May 1915 claimed that Armenians
were continuously being killed in one month in Eastern and
South-eastern Anatolia, which they named as “Armenia” and
declared that they agreed upon the fact that the Ottoman Government
had to be charged for all these events.
Upon the new
international dimension the issue had gained, Talat Pasha
delivered an official note on the practice of relocation to
the Prime Minister on 26th May 1915. In the note, he stated
that they decided on the settlement of Armenians living in
regions of war in other regions, after it was proved that
Armenians started rebellions and massacres. The note of the
Ministry of Domestic Affairs together with another note by
the Prime Ministry was immediately put on the agenda of the
Parliament. In the note of the Prime Ministry, it was stated
that the practice of relocation was necessary for the security
of the state and that it was necessary to exercise it in association
with a procedure and regulation. The Parliament took a decision
that approved this practice on the same date. Thus, the law
issued on 27th May 1915 in the Parliament was put into force
by being published in Takvim-i Vekayi, the Official
Gazette of those times, on 1st June 1915.
In a written
notification sent by the Prime Ministry to the Ministry of
Domestic Affairs and Finance and the War Ministry on 30th
of May 1915, it was explained in detail how the migration
would be implemented and it was stated that the Armenians
would be settled in the regions allocated for them, ensuring
security for their lives and properties; their needs would
be met through the subsidy of the immigrants’ association
until they completely settled in their new houses; they would
be given real estate and lands in regard with their former
financial conditions; the ones in need would be provided with
housing constructed by the government; the farmers and those
engaged in agriculture as a profession would be provided with
seed beds, equipment and devices; the movable properties they
left behind would be returned to them; the immovable property,
after their values being determined, would be sold and the
money to the owners would be handed over; places such as olive,
mulberry and orange groves, vineyards, shops, factories and
warehouses which yield revenues would be sold by auction or
be rented and costs of the same be registered at the deposit
so that they would be paid to their owners later; all these
issues would be executed by special commissions and a detailed
instructions guide would be prepared regarding this matter.
Attributed To Talat Pasha
That the measures
taken regarding the Armenians were not aiming at their eradication
was frequently repeated by Talat Pasha. Even, the tone of
the language used in a coded telegraph sent to the governor
and the administrative units of the relevant provinces on
29th of August 1915 is a clear evidence of this. The code
is as follows:
carried out by the government by displacing the Armenians
from where they live and settling them in assigned regions
is to ensure that this nation does not take part in activities
opposing the government and that they become unable to follow
their national ideal on founding an Armenian Government. The
case is not that these people be eradicated, yet, during relocation,
the security of Armenian convoys shall be ensured and all
necessary precautions shall be taken in order to meet their
needs through the subsidy of the immigrants’ association.
Severe legal measures shall be taken against the attackers
towards these convoys or the against gendarme and officials
that take part in such attacks and they shall immediately
be dismissed and delivered to the military courts.”
As to the telegraph
that the so-called Armenian genocide claim supporters:
called Aram Andonian mentioned this issue in his book “Naim
Bey’in Anilari / Ermenilerin Tehcir ve Katliamina Iliskin
Resmi Türk Belgeleri” (Memoirs of Naim Bey / Official Turkish
Documents Related to the Armenian Migration and Genocide)
he published in London, 1920. The telegraphs that are mentioned
in the book and attributed to Talat Pasha are fake documents
produced in order to create a criminal for the so-called genocide.
As a result of the researches made by Sinasi Orel and Sureyya
Yuca on these documents, numerous concrete evidences were
found that they were fake.
Law on Relocation
and Settlement provided how relocation would be made in detail.
In these decisions and instructions, issues such as how movables
and real estates were to be delivered of, condition of the
lands and crop on them, their registration and even, giving
hot food with meat to the immigrants were taken into consideration.
The legislation clarifying how the law would be applied did
not aim at destruction of any movables or real estate or killing
of the people; on the contrary any mistakes in the execution
of the regulation punished severely, including capital punishment.
of how relocation would be made was resolved by the Board
of Ministers as follows:
shall be moved to the allocated regions in security, safety
shall be met by the subsidy of immigrants association until
they become resident at their new homes.
be given lands and real estates taking into consideration
their previous financial and economic conditions and the government
shall construct houses for those in need and seeds and tools
shall be supplied to the farmers and business experts.
properties they left behind shall be taken to them in a proper
fixing and evaluation of real estates in cities and villages
evacuated by the Armenians, those shall be distributed to
the migrants to be settled down in such villages.
as olive and mulberry groves, vineyards, shops, factories
and warehouses which yield revenues shall be sold by auction
or shall be rented and costs of the same shall be registered
at the deposit for to be paid later to their owners.
shall be pursued by a special commission and instructions
shall be issued on this subject.
As may be understood
from the text, displaced persons would take their movable
assets with them or they shall be taken to them afterwards,
their real assets were to be sold by auction, prices to be
paid to them.
with the Law on Relocation and Settlement dated 27 May 1915
and the decrees setting forth the forms of application of
this law; the Armenian convoys were gathered in some certain
centers such as Konya, Diyarbekir, Cizre, Birecik and Halep,
on the crossroads to their destinations.
on which the convoys were to be displaced were selected among
the nearest roads due to security reasons and prevention of
difficulties the migrants may suffer.
was paid for orderly sending and protection from any dangers
or loss of the convoys despite the war conditions. As a matter
of fact, Mersin Consul of America, Edward Natan, in the report
he sent to Ambassador Morgenthau on 30 August 1915 depicted,
“All routes from Tarsus to Adana were full of Armenians; despite
some troubles that may take place due to the crowd, the government
managed the situation well; it did not allow violence and
irregularity; the migrants were provided necessary number
of tickets; and those in need were provided assistance”.
government initiated a practice of intentionally killing a
group of people, it would not implement decisions such as
conditions to be provided for the migrants on their way, protection
of the convoys against attacks by the bandits, medical aid,
protection of children, registration of movables and real
assets they left behind, giving food with meat at certain
intervals. Therefore, relocation of the Armenians was not
slaughtering of the Armenians, but was aimed at ensuring the
security of the state and is the most successful relocation
and settlement movement in history.
incurred during the Relocation
for Migrants was established in order to meet the needs arising
in relation with displaced Muslims, Greeks and Armenians and
the migration movements toward Anatolia which attempted to
solve the settlement, means of living and other problems of
to the practice give detailed information on in which provinces
and districts hospitals were established, and which buildings
were allotted for the orphaned Armenian children. The documents
show that the amount spent for relocation, settlement and
ensuring the living of the migrants subject to relocation
was 25 million kurus in 1915, and 230 million kurus in 1916.
established during the migration were provided with means
of transport or saddle beasts special care was given to women,
elderly and children. Article 2 and Article 3 of the regulations
issued by the term Ministry of the Interior, explained respectively
that “the displaced Armenians could take all their goods and
animals together with them” and “protecting the lives of the
Armenians on the journey to the places they were to be settled
during their travel and supplying their food and rest were
the duties of the administrative authorities of the regions
they pass; any slackness or carelessness that might take place
with regard to this issue would be responsibility of all of
distributed to those migrating via sea in order to make sure
that they protect themselves from malaria, which was an epidemic
of the day and for the patients, the possibility of benefiting
from military hospitals in addition to the civil hospitals
while spending so much money for this replacement implementation,
either delayed or cancelled the public and private debts of
the Armenians subject to immigration. At the same time, an
amount of money sent from America to be given to the Armenian
immigrants was distributed to the Armenians by the American
missionaries and consuls with the consent of the.
Population before the Relocation
The most abused
and distorted issue, which the Armenian revolutionary committee
members and their supporters of today use, is the Armenian
population before and after the migration process. The records
of war period, official figures, church logs, information
on population in the reports of foreign missionaries are being
constantly distorted to make the real population of those
days look much more despite those documents the figures are
unreasonably exaggerated so as to find support to their so-called
genocide allegations. Some of these figures even exceed the
total Armenian population of today’s world.
In some foreign
resources the Armenian population living in the Ottoman Empire
as per Armenian Patriarchate
as per the Armenian Committee of Lausanne
as per the French Yellow Book
as per Britannica
1 million as
per the English yearbook.
as to Ottoman official documents is as follows:
per 1893 Census
per 1906 Census
per Population Statistics of 1914
consideration the statistics pertaining either to the Ottomans
and foreigners, it is evident that the population of the Armenians
living in the Ottoman territories during World War I was about
1.250.000 at most.
It is certain
that the most reliable numbers with regard to Armenian population
of Ottoman State is in official documents. General Directorate
of Statistics was established in 1892 in the Ottoman State.
The general director was Nuri Bey in 1892, a Jew called Fethi
Franco between 1892 and 1897, an Armenian called Migirdiç
Sinabyan between 1897 and 1903, an American named Robert between
1903 and 1908 and Mehmet Behiç Bey between 1908 and 1914.
As it is seen, non-Muslims were in control of the information
about population in the Ottoman Empire in a period during
which important events were taking Armenian issue to the political
arena. Therefore, the information on population given by Ottoman
sources should be relied on since no documents and opinions
showing the contrary have been found until now.
where the Armenians were Settled
framework of relocation implementaitons, it was decided that
the Armenians from Erzurum, Van and Bitlis were to be sent
to south of Musul, and to Zor and Urfa Districts; and Armenians
from Adana, Halep, Maras to be sent to eastern Syria and east
and southeast of Halep. However, a note to Adana, Erzurum,
Bitlis, Halep, Diyarbekir, Syria, Sivas, Trabzon, Elazig (Mamuretülaziz)
and Musul provinces and Adana Abandoned Property Commission
Chairmanship, Zor, Maras, Canik, Kayseri and Izmit Administrates
upon continuing revolutions and slaughters of Armenians, on
5 July 1915, set forth that the regions allotted for Armenian
settlement was widened. At the same time, special attention
was paid to establish the residential areas of the Armenians
25 km far from the Baghdad railway at most, to make sure that
the Armenian population does not exceed 10 percent of the
Muslim population of the region and to ensure that every village
has maximum 50 houses.
of the Armenians Subjected to the Relocation
of Armenians subjected to the relocation regarding their arrival
and departure points was under control and registered at all
times. It is quite obvious that 438.758 people were displaced
from various regions of Anatolia and 382.148 of these people
were safely replaced in new settlements between 9 June 1915
and 8 February 1916. As seen, there is a difference of 56.000
people between the evacuees and the arrives. All the figures
regarding the relocation of the Armenians were registered.
The pertinent Ottoman documents explain this difference as
on the road between Erzurum and Erzincan; 2000 in Meskene,
between Urfa and Aleppo and 2000 others on the outskirts of
Mardin were massacred in attacks launched by bandits or nomadic
Arabs. Another 5000 people were killed in attacks on convoys
passing through Dersim. These figures prove that no massacre
had been occurred against the Armenians and it is impossible
to mention a genocide.
It was understood
from these documents that many people had also fallen victim
to hunger while on the road. Apart from these, some 25-30
thousand people had lost their lives when struck by fatal
diseases such as typhoid and dysentery. In all, an estimated
40 thousand casualties had been registered during relocation.
The remaining 10-16 thousand people were made at stay in provinces
they had reached, when the implementation of relocation was
brought to an end. For instance, on April 26, 1916, orders
were given to provide the return to and the settlement in
the province of Konya of those Armenians setting out form
the province to new destinations. On the other hand, many
other Armenians are believed to have fled to either Russia
or to Western countries, including the Unites States.
this, many Armenians went to several countries prior to the
war and after the war mainly to United States of America and
Russia. It was set forth with certain documents that 50.000
Armenians were trained in the region where they joined the
Russian army and that 50.000 Armenians were receiving training
in the American army for fighting with the Turks. In fact,
the letter of an Armenian who was living in America to Murad
Muradyan an advocate in Elezig shows such information. In
the concerned letter, Muradyan mentions that some Armenians
were escaped to Russia and America and later 50.000 of those
trained soldiers went to Caucassia. As it can be understood
from all the concerned documents, many of Armenian subjects
of the Ottoman State were scattered through various countries
especially to U.S.A. and Russia, before and during the war.
For example, Artin Hotomyan who was a tradesman in America
sent a letter to the Chieftain of Security on January 19,
1915 and stated that thousands of Armenians migrated to U.S.A.
and they were facing with hunger and hardships.
the report presented by Noradungian Gabrial to the Lausanne
Conference Evacuation Commission, it was observed that 345.000
people went to the Caucasus, 140.000 people went to Syria,
120.000 to Greece and to the Aegean islands, 40.000 to Bulgaria,
50.000 to Iran; 695.000 in total.
In a message
sent to Hüseyin Rauf by Hatisov who participated in the Trabzon
Conference (14 March - 14 April 1918) and who was one of the
eminent figures of the Armenians (he became the President
of Armenia afterwards), it was said that the number of Armenians
who left the Ottoman territories and went to the Caucasus
Armenian Richard Hovannisian states that 50.000 Armenians
went to Lebanon, 10.000 to Jordan, 40.000 to Egypt, 25.000
to Iraq, and 35.000 to France and USA from the Arabian countries
except for Syria .
In the light
of the figures given by Armenians and foreigners, it is clear
that 345.000 Armenians went to the Caucasus, 140.000 to Syria,
120.000 to Greece and to the Aegean islands, 40.000 to Bulgaria,
50.000 to Iran, 50.000 to Lebanon, 10.000 to Jordan, 40.000
to Egypt, 25.000 to Iraq, and 35.000 to France, USA, Austria
etc. in the application of evacuation and placement; 855.000
Armenians in total.
It is impossible
that 2-3 millions of Armenians could have been killed as claimed
by Armenians. This slander may be the biggest lie on the earth
as the number of the Armenians living in the territories of
the Ottoman State had been around 1.250.000.
the Ottoman State had wanted to get rid of its Armenians subjects,
this could have been handled by assimilation or by presenting
the war as a reason. However, as it is known, Armenians led
a more comfortable life than that of the Turks in the Ottoman
Empire. As stated, when the Armenians, who were deceived by
the dream that the territories occupied by Armenians would
be given to them and that an independent Armenia could be
established, began to fight with the Ottomans, in betrayal,
the application of relocation became a must. Execution of
relocation did not aim at the destroying Armenians, on the
contrary, it was aimed at protecting them and providing security
of the state, and it is the most successful relocation application
of the world.
on the Armenian Convoys and the Measures Taken by the Government
were attacked by the tribes located between Aleppo and Zor,
and by Arab bandits during the journey of Armenians to the
placement areas. According to a deciphered telegram of 8 January
1916, it was reported that many Armenians had been killed
by the attacks of Arab bandits whose intentions were robbery,
in the area between Aleppo and Meskene, that 2.000 Armenians
were robbed and attacked by the Arab tribes on their way to
Aleppo through Saruç and Menbiç. It was also reported that
around 2.000 people had been killed regardless of their religion
including Muslims and non-Muslims in Diyarbekir by certain
bandits and tribes, and that another convoy of 500 people
travelling on Erzurum-Erzincan way was killed due to the attacks
Government spent great efforts in order to provide the safety
of the convoys while it was also fighting with the enemy on
battle fronts. Certain inspection delegations were established
and sent to replacement areas in order to investigate the
officials who failed to settlement areas. These delegations
dispatched those people found guilty to Martial Court. Some
authorities were dismissed from service and some others were
given heavy punishments.
who were not Relocated
the telegrams of 2nd and 15th August 1915, sent to the Governor
Offices of relevant provinces it was reported that those Armenians
of Catholic and Protestant sects, Armenians serving in the
Ottoman Army officers and in medical troops, Armenians working
in the branches of the Ottoman Bank, Armenians in the Reggie
administration and in certain consular offices were excluded
from relocation as long as they remained loyal to the state.
the sick, the disabled, the old, and the women and children
were excluded from relocation, they were taken care of in
orphanages and villages and their needs were met by the state.
In a circular of 30th April 1916, on Armenian families who
need shelter, it was stated that those families whose fathers
had been replaced or were serving the military or had nobody
to look after them would be settled in villages and towns
where there were no foreigners other then Armenians and that
their needs would be met by the immigrant budget.
of the Armenians who were Relocated
the instruction published on 10th June 1915, properties of
Armenians who were subjected to immigration were protected.
Those properties that could not be protected, such as animals
and workshops that needed to be operated were sold by certain
committees established for the care purpose by public auction
and the income earned was sent to their owners.
of Armenians who were Relocated
of Armenians in new settlements was stopped on 25 November
1915 due to winter. In a general instruction sent to the provinces
and sanjaks, it was stated that the relocation of Armenians
was stopped totally, and that no relocation would be performed
for any reason. After the end of the World War I, a circular
was issued in order to provide the return of Armenians who
had been subjected to the relocation to their homes if they
wished. In a document issued by the Interior Minister Mustafa
Pasha and sent to the Prime Ministry on 4th January 1919,
it was set forth that certain instructions had been issued
in order to provide the return of Armenians who were subjected
to relocation to their homes if they wished and it was stated
in detail that required precautions were taken.
concerning Relocation in the World
foreign observers located in the areas where relocation operations
were being executed reported that even though the Ottomans
Government fought in several fronts in the World War I, it
executed relocation operations successfully and with great
care, the western press gave misinformation about the issue
and distorted the facts. For example, although the Consular
of the United States of America in Mersin, Edward Natan, stated
in his report that the relocation implementations were carried
out in an order, the Ambassador in Istanbul distorted the
facts in Natan’s report and when his report reached America,
the American press used this information against the Turks.
framework of the reports of the British consulars in Iran,
the claims that 1.000.000 Armenians were killed were taken
into consideration in the English Parliament and the decision
to protest the Turkish Government was taken. Moreover, the
Mavi Kitap (the Blue Book) published in Britain on
the Armenian events, claimed that in the Ottoman Empire one
third of the total Armenian population, which was 1.800.000
After the World
War I, following the occupation of Istanbul and other provinces
by the Central European Powers, 143 Ottoman political and
military leaders and intellectuals were arrested and sent
to the Malta island by the British and to be tried. A comprehensive
investigation was carried out in the Ottoman archives in order
to find out the proof of guilt regarding these imprisoned
people, but no proof showing that they were guilty could be
presented to the court. The British Government studied on
certain reports in its archives and the archives of the USA
in Washington thoroughly, but no evidence was found.
In a message
sent by the British Ambassador in Washington R. C. Craigie
to Lord Curzon on 13 July 1921, it was stated that
“I am sorry
to say that nothing to be used against the Turks persecuted
in Malta as proof could be found... No problem is available
at the moment to present as a qualified evidence. The relevant
reports, in no way, seem to be including any proofs to support
the information available in the Government of Her Majesty’s
regarding the Turks”.
The Law Advisers
in London stated on 29th July 1921 that the accusations on
the persons included in the list of the British Foreign Office
included semi-political judgement, and therefore a new operation
has to be performed for those Turks who were arrested for
accusations of war crimes.
was received from any witnesses proving that the accusations
against the arrested persons are right. Indeed, it
is not clear that any witness can be found as it is unnecessary
to state that it is highly difficult to find any witness in
a country which is far and hard to reach such as Armenia,
particularly after such a long time”. This statement
was made by the Law Advisers of the British Government in
those arrested people in Malta were released in 1922 without
any hearing and any accusation directed to them.
period, certain documents were published in the British press
accusing the Ottoman Government and trying to prove these
accusations. It was claimed that these documents were found
in the Ottoman State offices in Syria by the British Occupation
Forces under the command of General Allenby. However, the
investigations carried out by the British Foreign Office afterwards
found out that these documents given to the British press
were not the documents received by the British Army, but they
were fake documents sent to the allied delegations by the
Nationalist Armenian Delegation in Paris.
of the Scientists for the Claims
considering the history according the sizes and principles
of history, received the original information and documents
regarding the issue since 1925 and listened to the witnesses,
and made certain observations in the areas that the events
took place. These scientists knew that the Ottoman Archives
were open to foreign researchers to personal applications.
Therefore, comments or contrary beliefs on their convictions
can only be made by the people who know in detail as much
as these scientists.
document regarding the issue is the report presented by the
69 American scientists to the Parliament of Representatives
on 19 May 1985.
called Turkey, in fact “Republic of Turkey”, was a part of
the Ottoman Empire which was a multi-religious, multi-national
state from the 14th century to 1922. It is incorrect to consider
the Ottoman Empire as equal to the Republic of Turkey just
as in the case of Habsburg Empire and Republic of Austria”.
academicians whose signatures are present below and who are
experts on Turks and Ottoman researches, are of the opinion
that the language used in the resolution of the American Parliament
of Representatives was distorted and incorrect. Our concerns
focus on the use of the “Turkey” and “genocide” and can be
summarised as follows:
Empire which was brought down in 1922 by the Turkish Revolution,
which led to the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in
192, was a state that had the territories of more than 25
states currently located in the Southeast Europe, Northern
Africa and the Middle East, one of which is the Republic of
Turkey. The Republic of Turkey cannot be held responsible
for any event that took place during the Ottomans.
As for the
“genocide” accusation, those signing this report do not have
any intention to look down on the dimensions of the pains
that Armenians had suffered. Likewise, we are of the opinion
that the suffering of the Muslim people in the concerned area
cannot be treated in a different way either. (...) However,
there are several documents and findings to be reached by
the historians in order to differ the belligerent and innocent
from the to find out the reasons for the events.
such as those in the Resolution of the Parliament of Representatives
No 192 shall lead to the unjust statements regarding the Turkish
people and maybe will damage the improvements obtained by
the historians in understanding these tragic events.
If the Congress approves
this Resolution, it shall try to decide on what part of the
historical problem is correct via laws. Such a decision based
on suspicious assumptions shall damage historical research
and shall damage the reliability of the American legislative