BY ARMENIANS IN AZERBAIJAN
The massacres committed by the Armenians towards the Turkish
people were not limited to Anatolia, but continued in the
Caucasius and in the Azerbaijan, as well. The following, information
is from the documents from Prof. Fahrettin M. Kirzioglu.
“ In August 1919, Armenians attacked the 45 villages around
Nahcivan and Serür with their military troops; and opened
fire from armoured wagons to the villages along the railroad.
Towards the end of May 1920, the Armenians expelled by force
the people of the Islam village named Karadagli, near Uluhanli
in Erivan, pillaged their goods and obliged them to emigrate.
On the night of May 23 — 24, 1920 more than 300 Armenian cavalrymen
surrounded the Cebecali village, 5 km to the north of Uluhanli,
gathered all the men, and bayoneted all of them.
On the night of June 27, 1920, the Armenians who raided the
Hacibayram and Haberbegli Villages in Erivan, pillaged the
goods and belongings of the people, and killed a lot of them.
A small minority who could survive from the raid, were drowned
in the Aras River while they were passing the river towards
the south, upon the attacking of Armenians.
500 Moslems carrying the passsports issued by the Azerbaijan
Ambassador in Erivan and going to Gence, by train, to reach
Azerbaijan and other places were forced to get off the train
near Gümrü and all of them were murdered.
On April 6, 1920, the Armenians attacked with regular troops
comprising several military branches, the Islam villages in
the Zengezor, Ordubad, Vedi regions, and they performed all
kinds of atrocities and conducted all kinds of violence to
the most disgusting limits.
The Armenians attacked the Islam people of the Hacaparak village,
which is 15 minutes away from the city of Erivan, on the night
of April 16, 1920 and attempted to murder all the people.
6 men, who could not flee from this atrocity, were killed
by strokes of daggers. The chastity and then women and girls
were spoiled or they were killed or burned. All of the homes
were pillaged. “
The atrocities of the Armenians towards the Azerbaijani people
were not limited to those committed in Azerbaijan, but also
continued in the USSR / CCCP era and also during the period
of the Armenian Republic period, which was founded after the
scattering of the USSR. Assoc. Prof. Yasin Aslan, exhibits
important documents on this subject, in his book named “ Ermenistan
Tarihi Yol Ayiriminda / Armenia in Historical Cross — Road
Armenians had demonstrations on February 13, 1988 in Hankendin
(Stepanakert), the Administrative center of Nagorno Karabakh.
The demonstrators demanded that Nagorno Karabakh be taken
from Azerbaijan and given to Armenia. After this, the chain
of demands started to extending beyond this. On February 18,
1988 the first Azerbaijani began to come to Baku. They were
packed in buses and they were sent back. But, they started
to come back again after a short while. This time the emigrants
took shelter in Sumgayit, instead of Baku, but some events
took place there, followed by others. 180.000 — 200.000 Azerbaijani
people were forced to get out of Armenia. Approximately, same
number of Armenians were also made to leave Azerbaijan. In
short, more than one million Azerbaijani people were made
to fall into position of emigrants.
In fact, the events that started in 1988 in fact, form the
last link in the chain of exile. The Azerbaijanis living in
Armenia, were exiled from their historical lands several times,
some of which were in the USSR / CCCP era in 1945. Arutunyan,
the President of the Armenian Communist Party, wrote a letter,
to Stalin for the giving of Nagorno Karabakh to Armenia.
Stalin, in turn, sent a letter to Mir Cefer Bagirov, the President
of Azerbaijan Communist Party Bagirov, in his reply to Stalin
stated that Susa, whose population is composed of Azerbaijani
people, should stay with Azerbaijan, and that Azerbaijani
people also land demands from Armenians. Such an approach
helped the closing of this artificial problem at that time.
However, the Council of Ministers of the former Soviet Union
with the decision no 4088 dated December 23, 1947 decided
to exile the Turks living in Armenia, to the Kura — Aras Plain,
under the name of “ Azerbaijani ”. Two and a half months later,
the very same Council of Ministers, provided the application
of the previous decision by their new decision No. 754, dated
March 10, 1948 with the signature of Stalin. After the decision,
the Azerbaijanis; living in Armenia were sent out of those
places, and this process continued until Stalin’s death. In
this period, more than 150.000 Azerbaijanis were expelled
from their lands where their ancestors had lived for many
At the beginning of the century, the exile of the Azerbaijanis
living in Armenia was realised in various ways. In 1927, Azerbaijanis
formed the 70 % of the population living in Erivan. In those
years, 130.000 Azerbaijanis were expelled and close to 100.000
Armenians were brought in their places from Middle Eastern
countries. This process also continued in later years. According
to the Armenian historians, out of the 2.000 of the 2.300
villages in Armenia, were Azerbaijani villages. After 1936,
the Armenian authorities started to change and cancel the
Azerbaijani place names and also in 1991, Armenian names were
given to 90 Azerbaijani villages, in accordance with the order
of Levon Ter — Petrosyan, the President of Armenia. The changing
of place names started in 1960s and 1970s under the presidency
of Hovannes Bagdarasyan, the Deputy President of Armenian
At the end of expelling and immigration acts conducted, which
continued for two centuries, 1.500.000 Azerbaijani Turks were
expelled from their historical homelands in Armenia and were
forced to immigrate by several pretexts. In 1988, the expulsion
process was completed.
At present, there is not even one single Azerbaijani in Armenia.
In 1988, the Armenians made up 88.6 % of the population. The
Armenian land was 9.000 km2 at the beginning of
the century. Now it has reached 29.8 km2,
due to the adoption of Azerbaijani lands. This figure
does not include the lands invaded by the Armenians in the
It has to be accepted that the pressure of the Russian — Armenian
pair over Azerbaijan has been increased / intensified. Azerbaijan
is almost about to turn into Lebanon soon. The danger of the
land being broken up has not yet been avoided. The Armenians
are still keeping control over the Lacin Corridor, which connect
the Nagorno Karabakh and Armenia. 20 % of the Azerbaijani
lands are under invasion of Armenia. On the other hand, Armenia
has declared / announced in May 1992, that it has founded
a “Kurdish Republic” in, in Lacin — Kelbecer Region.
Azatamart Newspaper and Azadlig (Freedom) Radio, which are
the publication organs of the opposition in Armenia, published
the sensational declaration of Eduart Oganisyan, the Ex —
President of The Armenian Service, The President of Russian
— Armenian Relations Organization, and one of the leaders
of the Tashnaksutyun Party. In his declaration, Oganisyan,
stated that Armenian Government had signed a secret agreement
with Russia, for unification with Russia. However, this fact
is being kept as secret.
Armenia wants to play a specific role in the region for herself.
Alode at the articles published in the Russian and Armenian
press is sufficient to find out the kind of role what Armenia
wants to play.
The article named “ Turan, in Lieu Of Soviet Union? “ in Issue
No. 1993 / 4 of the Nas Sovremennik (Muasirimiz) Magazine,
written by 1963 born Artur Gevarkyan, one of the staff of
Armenian Pedagogy Institute, Philosophy and Politology Department,
attracts attention from many respects. Gevarkyan, who defends
the revival of the “Third Rome” even more forcefully than
a Russian, summarised his views related with the subject in
the following way:
“Armenia is the supporter of Russia in the Caucasia, and is
her natural and historical ally. The Armenians obstruct the
(Turan) road of the Panturkists who is a member of the horrible
trio composed also of Anglo-Saxons and Zionists. The only
salvation of Russia, Armenia, Georgia, Serbia, and other Christian
nations is to revive the “Third Rome”.
Some Russian authorities defend that the Caucasia must be
taken into a circle of fire, in order to prevent it from the
effect of other countries. In such a situation, those states
that are closely interested in the region, like Turkey and
Iran, will not be able to penetrate into the region, by cutting
through the circle of fire. A good example to this is the
article of Vadim Simbursky in one of the April 1994 issues
of Segodnaya newspaper. Simbursky’s views are as follows:
“The only region that forms a direct threat to the interests
of Russia, is Caucasia. The existence of small empires in
Caucasia like “ Azerbaijan “ and “ Georgia “ that would like
to stay as national states is suitable to the interests of
Russia. There are reformist powers that would work to protect
the interests of Russia in the region. For this reason, the
“Stabilised Instability” in the region must be preserved.
As a matter of fact, such a situation is being realized in
the region for years, and this prevents the free movement
of Turkey and Iran. The continuing of conflicts in the region
at low level is suitable for the interests of Russia. Because;
such a situation would contribute the formation of the circle
of fire that would hinder the penetration of Turkey to the
While Russia is behaving in such a way in the west of the
Caspian Sea, it should protect stability in the east of the
Caspian Sea, because; the Kazakhstan is semi-Russian region,
it should be transformed into a security belt that protects
the southern borders of Russia.
Odenburg, will be open to the expansion of the Central Asia.
For this reason, Russia should do her best to transform Kazakhistan
and other Central Eastern countries into an internal security
Vazgen Manukyan, who was the Armenian Minister of Defence
in between the years 1992 — 1993, and is now one of the unofficial
leaders of the opposition, stated, in his interview with the
Nezavisimaya newspaper in April 1994 that the time had come
for Nagorno Karabakh to form a federal state in Azerbaijan.
of the Armenian Andronik Migranyan, the political consultant
of Russian President Yeltsin and Member of Presidential Congress,
is interesting from many aspects. Migranyan proposed the transformation
of Azerbaijan and Georgia into a Federal State, in an article
in one of the January 1994 issues of Nezavisimaya newspaper.
He claimed that Azerbaijan and Georgia, when transformed into
a federal state would not be able to live without Moscow.
Migranyan also stated that Armenia should also be transformed
into a peace and stability element in the southern border
Levon ªirinyan had also put forth before the same proposal
in his comment in the Azatamart newspaper. In another article
ªirinyan mentioned that Nahcivan should also be given back
to Armenia. It is possible to extend the chain of examples.
These examples clearly indicate from which centers the events
are being directed.
Those who prevent Turkish — Armenian rapprochement are those
who clearly make propaganda against Turkey, Tashnaksutyun
Party and some secret organisations that gathered under its
roof, pro — Moscow ones, consultants like Ambatsumov (Ambartsumyan),
Migranyan and Kurginyan, who gathered previously around Gorbachev,
then around Yeltsin and Armenian people who have duties at
several levels of the Russian Government and especially the
The news published on December 7, 1993 by the Tashnaksutyun
Party to provoke the people and to create panic among them
is a good example to this. Basing news on foreign sources
and especially on the French Intelligence Organization, Tashnaksutyun
Party News Center informed that the Turkish Army would make
a rocket attack on many targets in Armenia, inclusive of the
Medzamor Nuclear Electric Power Plant. According to the news,
Turkey would use the excuse of the existence of PKK terrorists
in Armenia, make its attacks legitimate. According to Bagrat
Sadoyiyan, the President of the News Center, Turkey would
make such attacks from the lands of Nahcivan.
There are numerous articles against Turkey published in the
Russian and the Armenian press. In these articles the aim
is to frighten the public opinion, by the Turkish Factor”.
Expressions such as “The Awakening Giant “, “ The Awakening
Lion “, “ The Death Angel Of The Soviet Empire “, “ The Ottoman
Soul is Being Revived “ and “ One Of The Two Pillars Of The
Empire of the Future” are being frequently used. Andronik,
the Armenian politiologist expressed the following about such
“Armenia, Russia and Iran may prevent the unification of Turkey
with Azerbaijan and Central Asia. Armenia and Iran should
transform into a factor that hinder the unification of the
Armenia has plays an important role in the foreign policy
of Russia for the last few centuries. Armenia has taken up
the role of an outpost in the forefront of Russia in the Turkish
— Moslem World. However, for the last few years Russian Nationalists
have been mentioning that the friendly relations with the
Turkish World are necessary, and they have been condemning
the aggressions of Armenia against Azerbaijan. Some Russian
Nationalists now see Armenia as a burden on the shoulders
According to Moscow newspapers, Russia pays the 57 % of the
Armenian budget. It is not possible for Armenia to continue
a wide front war without foreign aid. Resul Guliyev, The President
Of The Azerbaijan National Assembly, expressed in his interview
with the Russian TV that Armenia would not be able to continue
the war for another five years without foreign aid. According
to Guliyev, Armenia is in such a position that it cannot buy
even a single tank. The supporters of Armenia are the Armenians
who live in emigration, some western states and some countries
that are the members of CIS / Commonwealth of Independent
Moskovskiya Novosti newspaper mentioned in its issue no. 1992
/ 13, that “with the withdrawal of Russia from the region,
the stability in the Caucasia will be broken up and the influence
of Turkey will accelerate.”
The report of the Gorbachov Fund on Nagorno Karabakh, sheds
lighten does not the subject from another point of view, and
putforth that a large state as Russia does not need Armenia
from many aspects. Armenia is nothing more than a voluntarily
ally to Russia. The following statements in the report attract
the attention: “ The historical past of the Russian — Armenian
relations, obliges Russia to support Armenia. “
Armenians are aware of this and they are searching for ways
of making maximum use of the existing medium. Levon ªirinyan
expressed his views in his article published in Azatamart
newspaper in Armenia as follows:
“With no doubt, Russia will be the most powerful state in
the Caucasus, in the future. Until now, many states, including
USA, did not attempt to defy the interests of Russia in the
region. Russia’s losing of the Eastern Europe and the strategic
interests of Russia in the south make Russia get closer to
Armenia. The mission of Armenia is to observe carefully the
political manoeuvres of Russia in Caucasus, and to seek the
ways of making maximum use of them. It is a necessity to accept
co-operation within the framework of CIS / Commonwealth of
Independent States and in the form of bilateral relations.
Otherwise, another country or another partner will take the
place of weak and parasitic Armenia. “
For more than 70 years, the policy of Armenia on Turkey, depended
on the campaign to make the Western World believe that the
Turks have killed 1.5 million Armenians and to take back the
lands that were left to Turkey by the 1921 Treaty in the north-west
part of Turkey. Apart from this, the programs of all political
parties in Armenia, include the principles of taking back
the lands left to Turkey and obliging Turkey to apologize
for the Armenians killed during the Ottoman State era. As
it is known, the “Armenian Secret Army”, shortly known as
ASALA founded for the Salvation of Armenia, have killed 45
Turkish diplomats and the members of their families between
the years 1974 — 1985, for future purposes.
With the coming into power of the Armenian General National
Movement under the leadership of Ter — Petrosyan, in 1990,
important changes started to happen in the policy of Armenia
about Turkey. Within the framework of the attempts at separating
from the Soviet Union, Armenia entered into the process of
developing economic and commercial relations with Turkey and
Iran. This new approach also found its expression in the Independence
Declaration that was announced in August 1990. Although in
the Independence Declaration, it was repeated that genocide
be recognised by the international public opinion, no claims
of land were made.
The scattering of the Soviet Union has jeopardised the sensitive
Turkey — Armenia rapprochement. Turkey’s being the first country
to recognising of the independence of Azerbaijan, also affected
the developing relations in the negative manner.
An Armenian Government delegation came to Turkey in November
1992. Turkey put forward four conditions for enabling the
development of the relations between the two countries:
1. Armenia should
recognise the existing borders between Turkey and Armenia,
2. Armenia should
stop its campaign towards the recognition of the genocide
in 1915 in the international public opinion,
3. Armenia should
refrain from intervening in the internal affairs of Turkey
(Here especially the and provided to PKK have been considered),
4. Armenia should
accept the cease-fire in Nagorno Karabakh with the conditions
demanded by Azerbaijan.
The parties have reached an agreement on the first three items;
and the Ministers of Energy of Turkey and Armenia signed a
protocol on giving electricity to Armenia. The infringement
of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey at that time,
to explain the contents of the protocol and its importance,
could not convince the leaders in Azerbaijan and the opposition
in Turkey. Therefore, Turkey gave up the application of the
agreement. This development was a great blow onto the Government
of Armenia who suffered an energy shortage. As it is known,
Armenia obtains 96% of her energy needs from abroad. Armenia
obtained 80% of her natural gas needs from Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan
stopped supplying natural gas to Armenia in fall of 1991.
Due to this reason Armenia started to procure natural gas
from Turkmenistan. The natural gas pipeline passes through
the region in Georgia with its old name Borcali, now called
Marneuli, where Azerbaijanis lived. At least 10 sabotages
were done in 1995 to this pipeline.
Turkey’s permission to the aeroplanes going to Armenia to
pass through her air corridors has been evaluated as an attempt
to balance the aid given to Azerbaijan in order not to take
the world public opinion against her.
While the world public opinion was busy with the attack of
Russia on Chechen States, Levon Ter Petrosyan, the Armenian
President, who led the Armenian General National Movement,
and who left Nagorno Karabakh Committee, started a large scale
political cleansing campaign in the country for the first
time after the large operation that was realised by Gorbachov
in 1988 against the Nagorno Karabakh Commitee. As it is known,
Gorbachov had ordered the capture of the 11 members of the
Nagorno Karabakh Committee, including Ter — Petrosyan.
Ter-Petrosyan had temporarily forbid with a single order the
activities of Dasnaksütyün Party, known as Armenia Revolutionary
Federation on December 28, 1994 with a single order. Apart
from this, he closed down several organisations and newspapers
connected to the Tashnaksutyun Party.
Ter-Petrosyan, in this TV speech that he made after the political
cleansing infringement, expressed that the Tashnaksutyun Party
smuggled heroine, committed political murders, and housed
the terrorist organisation called DRO. He also added that
DRO formed a threat to the security of the Armenian State
and that it conducted spying in the field of armed forces.
These attempts of Ter-Petrosyan had not been a surprise, because;
he was fighting against Tashnaksutyun Party for long time.
For example, in June 1992 he exiled Hrair Marukyanagain to
Greece where he was back from emigration.
Babken Ararktsiyan, the speaker of the Parliament, while evaluating
the political cleansing infringements of Ter-Petrosyan stated
that the recent events and the demonstrations realised under
the leadership of Tashnaksutyun Party were aimed at spoiling
the political stability in the country.
The Constitution Court, declaring that no political party
is entitled to open branches abroad and told that foreigners
could not be placed in their leader teams has temporarily
banned the activities of Tashnaksutyun Party. Even though
the party leaders were Armenian, many of them are citizens
of other countries. Double citizenship is not allowed in Armenia
until now. Tashnaksutyun Party has members that live in many
countries of the world, and it has branches in countries where
Armenians live collectively. The center of the party is in
Tashnaksutyun Party is not the only party that returned to
Armenia after the scattering / disintegration of Soviet Union.
“ Rankavar Azatakan “ (Liberal Democrats) also returned to
the country. This party follows a more moderate line. Tashnaksutyun
is nationalistic and opposes the government in many aspects.
Tashnaksutyun Party, whose activities are banned, was previously
thought of participating in the elections as a part of a block
formed of left wing parties. This subject block had unified
organisations and institutions like the Nagorno Karabakh the
Armenia Group, Intellectual Union, Constitution Rights Union
and Heritage Movement under its roof. But, The Central Election
Committee did not allow the left union to participate in the
elections. On the other hand, the participation of the Monarchist
Party and Armenian Women Party in the election also was hindered.
Ter-Petrosyan participated in the elections together with
“Republican Block” that he formed by taking 5 political parties
with him. Even though the ratio of participation in the elections
was around 55 %, The Republican Block had 114 parliamentarians
and hence formed the majority. While the ªamiram Women’s Organisation
was taking the second rank, the Armenian Communist Party could
not achieve the success that was expected from it. While Gagik
Hartunyan was explaining the defeat of the extreme nationalistic
block and the communists, he expressed that they lacked a
good program and their egoist behaviour affected the election
results. However, the public opinion researches that were
conducted before the elections showed that the communists
would take at least the 20 % of the votes.
Armenia is now living one of the most difficult periods of
her history. It is in the effort of passing through a very
dangerous narrow bottleneck. The people live in poverty. The
minimum retirement pension is less than one dollar. According
to the State Statistics Department data, the average salary
is equal to 2.5 dollars. On the other hand, the data of the
Central Election Department, about to 1991 and 1994 elections,
indicate that the population has decreased by 30 % within
the last three years. In other words, approximately 1 million
Armenians have left the country since 1993. The Armenians
in Nagorno Karabakh are fleeing from there. The number of
Armenians who going to Russia and the west increased in a
fast way. According to the words of Georg Pogosyan, the President
of the Sociology Research Center of Armenian Sciences Academy,
the 70 % of the population of Armenia are potential emigrants.
The research show that the Armenians do not leave their countries
just because of cold and hunger. There are specific social
and political reasons for this. The Armenian newspapers published
the results of a sociological research made among the Armenians
who recently left the country in the years 1993 — 1994. Armenians,
who were consulted, said that 45 % left their country due
to the arbitrary behaviour of the police and similar organisations,
24 % left due to socio — economic reasons and 12 % left due
to no possibility for making free trade.
The war Armenia conduct in some regions of Nagorno Karabakh
and Azerbaijan and the embargo related to this imposed by
Turkey and Azerbaijan upon Armenia influenced the life in
Armenia in the negative way.
Armenia is in the effort of developing her relations with
her neighbours, especially with Russia and Iran, including
the idea of open to the sea over Georgia. The Russian — Armenian
co-operation is being exhibited in almost all fields. From
these points of view, The Russian — Armenian rapprochement
is rather attracting attentions.
In spite of the termination of the “ Cold War “ era, the geopolitical
war is still continuing. Parallel to the weakening of Russia,
and together with the coming of the western petroleum companies
to the region and with the strengthening of the regional nationalist
feelings, a special international system is being formed especially
in the Caspian region.
It is not a coincidence that Grachov, the Russian Minister
of Defence, visited Armenia and Georgia, instead of the front
line, when the Russian Army attacked the strategic Argun,
ªali and Gudarmes regions of Chechenya. Grachov both visited
the Russian Army units in the these republics and also negotiated
the matters of military co-operation with the leaders of the
countries. We have to remember that Russia also made use of
her bases in Armenia and Georgia for her attacks on to Chechenya.
The agreement for the use of the bases in Armenia by Russia
was signed in March 1995.
In spite of the fact that the antipathy in Russia against
Caucasian people has increased, the Russian Government and
even some extreme racist organizations and nationalistic Russian
organizations still see Armenia as a very important ally.
The extreme rightist Russian Organizations, are evaluating
Armenia as an anti-Turkish and anti — Moslem trench. For Russia,
Armenia is a tool to keep Turkey far away from Caucasia and
sustain the pressure on Azerbaijan.
Armenia should take the first step to solve the problems that
irritate its neighbours, beginning with Turkey and Azerbaijan.
The armed Armenian gangs should leave the Azerbaijan lands,
which are under invasion and the Nagorno Karabakh problem,
should be solved within the framework of integrity of Azerbaijan
lands. The existing situation, has exceeded the boundaries
of “ Self — Determination “ right of Nagorno Karabakh. Armenians
consider at the Nagorno Karabakh as their own lands, and they
have even started to mention “Third Armenia”. The article
of Levon ªirinyan, in Azatamart newspaper is a good example
to this. ªirinyan, who seems quite confident in himself, states
that the Armenian Plain and in the neighbouring region, he
adds that twenty million Kurds are sticking to the “National
State” proceeding in this direction, from now on nobody can
disregard their rights and the future is pregnant to more
fearful / violent events. It is not difficult to understand
from which source ªirinyan is fed. It is not possible to reach
a result by confusing minds with such articles. Now, is the
time to wake up and act sensibly in order to save the nation
from the severe situation that it is now in. The historical
experiences show that policies based on grudge and hatred
have collapsed and will also collapse in future. For this
reason, the latest developments in the region and the general
situation in Armenia, show that the time has come for Erivan
to act with common sense and to take courageous steps in order
to maintain stability in the region.
Turkey, who is located at the focus point of the world, is
an element of stability in the region. This is not an empty
claim. While the mentioning the contributions of the countries
especially Iran that have a close interest in Caucasus and
the Central Asia, Pravda stresses specifically the reality
of Turkey. According to Pravda, Turkey is the most suitable
model for the republics of Caucasus and Central Asian countries,
with her serious investment possibilities modern technology
and secular system. The advancing of Turkey towards these
targets, will contribute to peace and stability not only in
the country but also outside the boundaries of the country.
Especially after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, several
western countries are accepting that Turkey plays an important
role in the region, within the new geo-political medium that
has been formed.
According to the Financial Times newspaper, the Western European
contries see Turkey as a trade and political center, in the
East Mediterranean, and a stability factor in the Caucasus
and Middle Asia. All European countries and the United States
of America are evaluating Turkey, as the “Regional Power”
and “Secular Democratic Model”. According to Financial Times
newspaper, Turkey is a great element of stability in the region
which extends from the Middle East to the Central Asia and
from the Balkans to Caucassia.
1. Kirzioglu, Prof. Dr. M. Fahrettin, Kars Ili ve Cevresinde
Ermeni Mezalimi (1918 — 1920) / Armenian Oppressions in the
Kars Province and its Environs (1918 — 1920), KÖKSAV Yayinlari
/ KÖKSAV Publications, Ankara, 1999.
2. Aslan, Doc. Dr. / Assoc. Prof. Yasin, Ermenistan Tarihi
Yol Ayiriminda / Armenian History at the Cross Road., Ankara,
3. Ermeni Alimleri ve Feryat Koparan Taslar / Armenian Scholars
and the Stones That Create Screams (Russian) 1902, p. 80 —
4. AFP, 6. 5. 1994.
5. Azerbeycan Sovyet Ansiklopedisi IV / Azerbaijan Soviet
Encyclopaedia IV, page 81 — 82, Azerbeycan Gazetesi / Azerbaijan
Newspaper, 11. 3. 1994.
6. Moscow News, 11. 12. 1993, Nu. 46, ITAR — TASS, 31. 8.
7. Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 8. 4. 1994; Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 18.
8. Moscow News, 15. 1. 1993.
9. Nas Sovremennik (Muasirimiz) Magazine 1993 / 4 issue.
10. Segodnaya (Bu Gün / Today) Newspaper, 9. 4. 1994.
11. Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 8. 4. 1994.
12. Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 18. 1. 1994.
13. Azatamart Newspaper, November 2 — 8, 1993.
14. Snark News Agency, December 7, 1993.
15. Moskovskaya Pravda, 24. 9. 1992.
16. Turan Ajansi / Turan Agency, December 4, 1993.
17. Moskovskiya Novosti Newspaper, 1992 / 13.
18. Azadlig, 12. 5. 1992.
19. Azatamart, 2 — 8. 11. 1993.
20. Soviet Analyst, May 15, 1991 nu. : 10.
21. Neue Zeurcher Zeitung, February 9, 1993.
22. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, February 15, 1993.
23. Wall Street Journal, January 25, 1995.
24. Segodniya, June 28, 1995.
25. Segodniya, July 13, 1995.
26. ITAR — TASS, November 27, 1994.
27. Snark News Agency, December 1, 1993.
28. New Times, November 1994.
29. Country Report, 3 rd Quarter / 1994.
30. Segoniya, June 30, 1995.
31. Salam (Iran Newspaper), October 7, 1995.
32. Moscow News, December 8 — 14, 1995.
33. Komersant — Daily, October 17, 1995.
34. Nezavisimaya Gazeta, January 4, 1996.
35. Azatamart Newspaper, September 7 — 13, 1993.
36. Republik Ermenistan, August 3, 1993.
37. Pravda, March 3, 1993.
38. Financial Times, January 21, 1994.
39. Vremya, May 5, 1993.
40. Los Angeles Times, October 5, 1980.
41. Armenian Weekly, May 7, 1994.