IN CAVUSOGLU BARNYARD
Prof. Dr. Metin Ozbek, who was conducting observations in
the region, tells the event as follows:
I brought some human skeletons found coincidentally during
the construction of a house in Cavusoglu Samanligi, and taken
to the laboratuary at Hacettepe University in order to examine
it. As it is known, Anthropology enables the scientists to
know the age and causes of death, sex, ailments, and some
other facts by means of skeletons with the aid of advanced
techniques and methods. Above all it is possible to determine
the which race it belongs to through the examination of a
skull. It was impossible to match the skulls with the bones
of the body where, the remains of the skeletons we found.
Thus, we counted the individual skeletons according to the
amount of skulls and we numbered each.
In other words each individual skeleton had a different anthropological
identity. We found out that there were five females and four
males among the remains. The most prominent criterion that
indicates the age of death is “symohysin pubiswhich” is a
part of Pelvis. This part was preserved in seven of the individual
skeletons we worked on. We demonstrated the age range of skeletons
found in Cavusoglu Samanligi as follows.
1. Female (P6)........17-18
2. Male (P7)...........17-18 age
3. Female (P4)........18-19 age
4. Female (P3)........27-30 age
5. Male (P2)...........35-40 age
6. Female (P1)........39-44 age
7. Male(P5)............50 age (approximately)
8. Chid (D.1)..........15 age (approximately)
There was a striking
common characteristics of the skeletons examined; there were
injuries on the skulls which resulted from crushes with cutting
tools. Accordingly, the common cause of death was subjection
to severe torture.
I. Marks of Cuts on the Skulls:
Nr.1) Female, There are two clefts on the skull caused
by sharp-edged instruments. One of them is on the right parietal
and it is 42 mm. Long. The second one is also on the right
parietal and it is 36 mm. long. Presumably her instant death
resulted from the blows directed towards the head.
(Photograph 1) We identified the traces of four
cuts on the skull. The first one is on the first parietal
and it is 95 mm. long. The sharp edged instrument cut through
the skull and reached the brain. The second cleft is on both
parietals. The cutting tool-most probably an axe hit the Pemals
on the head and split the skull open. Such an act is enough
to cause instant death. The third stroke left a mark on the
left parietal and is 12 mm. to the back of the first cleft.
This scar is
48 mm. long and 19 mm wide and looks like a shuttle. The fourth
trace is right at the back of the third and is in the same
direction. Half of it is on the occipital bone.
(Photograph 2a) He is one of the group having
the greatest number of clefts on the skull. The sharp edged
tool hit its mark on the left ear and severed to mastoid totally.
This blow slightly abraded the occipital bone as well. The
second blow hit the left eye and left a deep mark on the frontal.
The third mark which is 75 mm. long is on the left parietal.
The sharp-edged instrument which entered the brain caused
a long cleft between the left tuber parietal and sutura lamb
The power of
the blow formed some other cracks in the same area. The fourth
blow right on top of the head cut the sagittal suture. This
cleft is 48 mm. long. The fifth blow is in horizontal plane
and severed the right parietal in parts close to the sagittal
suture. The instrument hit on the left zygomatic bone. In
this area it cut the bone and some parts of the superior maxillary.
This person was also burned in fires. (Photograph 2b)
Nr 4) Male
(Photograph 3) There are marks of three
blows directed towards the brain. The first one is a vertical
cleft which is 37 mm long. The second horizontal one is along
the parietal and frontal. It is 92 mm. long. The third blow
was also on the left parietal and caused a cleft which is
49 mm long and 21 mm wide.
The sharp-edged tool severed the tabule externa. These blows
resulted in an instant death. Like the person, this one was
also burned after death.
Nr.5) Female (Photograph 4). We discovered
four cutting marks on the skull. The first one on the frontal
is 28 mm. long and not very deep. The second one is at the
top part, along both sides of the parietal and it is 77 mm
long. This cleft is deep enough to be the sign demonstrating
her instant death. The third blow on the right ear was also
fatal. It severed the mastoid totally and cut the inferior
maxillary partly. The fourth mark is on the front part of
the right upper jaw.
Nr.6) Male (Photograph 5). An adult which
has four clefts on the head. The first one on the left parietal
is quite deep. It is 57 mm. long and 14 mm. wide. The cutting
tool entered the brain as well. On the side of the sagittal
suture there is a 23 mm long crevice. The second one is on
the saggittal suture. It is 29 mm. long and 28 mm wide. This
crevice is intersected by other two clefts. The horizontal
one ise 43 mm. and the oblique one is 42 mm. The third cleft
is also oblique. It is on the right parietal, a few mm. to
the front of the parietal cavity. The foruth mark is made
by a sharp pointed instrument. It is caused by a blow struck
on the head close to the sagittal suture. The individual was
probably tortured severely.
Nr.7) Male: There are signs of five hard blows. The
first one is in the area of the left auditory canal. The sharp-edged
instrument severed the mastoid totally. It even severed the
zygomatic partly. There were two blows stuck on the left ear
one after the other. They probably caused death right at that
moment. The second mark is closer to the lambda suture on
the right parietal. This cleft is partly on the horizontal
plane and it is 41 mm long. The third crevice is between the
two lambda suture on the occipital. It is 44 mm. long. The
fourth one is quite deep and 48 mm. long. It is situated on
the procenus occipital externa. The fifth crevice is right
on the back of the skull. It is 53 mm. long.
Nr.8) Female: The skeleton belongs to a girl who died
at about the age of fifteen. There are three cutting marks
on the skull. The first crevice is deep and reaches the brain
area. It is on the right parietal and 50 mm. long. The second
one is situated in a vertical position and 20 mm. long The
third one is right at the back part. This teenager was burnt
in fire after being killed.
Nr.9) Female: She died at about the age 17 or 19. There
are no signs of blows on the preserved bones of the skull.
The main parts of the occipital were either broken or lost.
It is impossible to state the reasons of death.
II. Identification of race through skeletons:
It is possible to identify race by measurement, index, and
morphological observation of the skulls. However there are
variations in each group of race. By means of Anthropometric
techniques we examined the skeletons found in Cavusoglu Samanligi.
We calculated the cephalic index which is the most prominent
criteria in race studies. We took the measurement of the eight
skulls. The indexes varied between 76 and 89. This result
showed that four are mesocaphalic and the others are brachycephalic.
We never came across with dolchocephalic group. In Anatolia
Alpina race which includes both mesocephalic and brachycephalic
ones, all the skeletons belonged to Alpine group to which
Anatolian Turks belong. The skeleton of the female whose death
age is between 17 and 19 does not belong to this group. It
is in the east variation of the Dinaric race which is called
While evaluating the heights we used the regression equations
of Trotter and Gleser. Where the three female skeletons are
concerned, the results are 52.9 cm. 159.2 cm and 168.2 cm.
The results related with the three men are 170.1, 172.4 and
Along with the skeltons, we also found one (shirt) button,
a sharp-edged iron piece and a part of an upper jaw. According
to Prof.Dr.Ilber Uzel from the Dept. of Dentistry at Gülhane
Medicine Academy, the fragment of the upper total Prothesis
belong to the right posterior. The prosthesis is rubber and
the teeth are porcelain. Prostheses were used by the members
of higher classes in 1900 s. Acatin traces (on the prosthesis)
suggest the possibility of a Male owner.
This type of porcelain was used between the years of 1915-1925
and produced by an American firm known as SSN. The epoch,
there skeletons belong to is thus proved in this way as well.
III. Marks on the long bones:
Despite a large number of cutting marks on the skulls, there
are very few cuts on the other bones of the skeletons. Virtually,
this is because of the fact that in fatal attempts the most
appropriate part of the body is the head since it is vulnerable.
1.There are three clefts on the diaphysis of the humerus of
an adult. This depicts that signs of the adult was burned.
2.On the front side of the diaphysis of the right tibia of
a women there is a deep cutting mark.
3.There is a deep cutting mark in the lower parts of the right
tibia of a male.
IV. General Conclusion and Evaluation:
The skeletons which were coincidentally found in Cavusoglu
Samanligi (Ercis) were examined thoroughly in terms of antrophological
methods. It is concluded that these skeletons belong to mostly
young people who were deliberately killed and some of them
were burned. The skulls demonstrated that these skeletons
belong to people from the Alpin race-type. Where Anatolia
is concerned, they most probably belong to Turks. The scientific
discoveries prove that these people were subjected to severe
torture and killed brutally. These facts confirm the statements
of the witnesses who live in the same area today. Thus the
part of history related to Armenians has to be rewritten because
the people who were massacred violently were not the Armenians
but the Turks.
Prof. Dr. Metin ÖZBEK